Impact of Fire on Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Bricks Containing Calcium Carbide Residue
Calcium carbide residue is an unutilized by-product. It contains high calcium and can be used to produce cementitious. The variation of Calcium carbide residue used is 0%, 5%, and 15%. This study focused on the reduction of the cement used and lightweight bricks resistance toward the fire condition. Moreover, the tests were carried out by examining the compressive strength before and after lightweight bricks burned, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The result showed a decrease of compressive strength on 10% and 15% carbide variation. At the combustion temperature of 250 °C, micro-cracking occurred at 0% and 5% carbide specimens, while not only cracking but also spalling and crazing were at the specimens with 10% carbide. The 5% variation of calcium carbide residue can increase the compressive strength and endurance at 250 °C. At the higher temperature, the compressive strength was decreased, and the material was damaged. IR-spectroscopy test results showed that 5% carbide composition achieved the highest compressive strength because the amount of H2O2 used reacts with CaO.
S. P. Teong and Y. Zhang, “Calcium carbide and its recent advances in biomass conversion,” J. Bioresour. Bioprod., vol. 5, pp. 96–100, 2020.
C. Jaturapitakkul and B. Roongreung, “Cementing Material from Calcium Carbide Residue-Rice Husk Ash,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng, vol. 15, p. 470–475., 2003.
H. Sun et al., “Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties,” Materials (Basel)., no. 8, pp. 638–651, 2015.
V. Noolu, H. Mudavath, R. J. Pillai, and S. K. Yantrapalli, “Permanent deformation behaviour of black cotton soil treated with calcium carbide residue,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 223, pp. 441–449, 2019.
U. Parlikar, P. S. Bundela, R. Baidya, and S. K. Ghosh, “Effect of Variation in the Chemical Constituents of Wastes on the Co-processing Performance of the Cement Kilns,” Procedia Environ. Sci., vol. 35, pp. 506–512, Jan. 2016.
A. G. Guimarães, P. Vaz-Fernandes, M. R. Ramos, and A. P. Martinho, “Co-processing of hazardous waste: The perception of workers regarding sustainability and health issues in a Brazilian cement company,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 186, pp. 313–324, Jun. 2018.
V. Subathra Devi, “Durability properties of multiple blended concrete,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 179, pp. 649–660, Aug. 2018.
S. Cabral-Fonseca, J. R. Correia, J. Custódio, H. M. Silva, A. M. Machado, and J. Sousa, “Durability of FRP - concrete bonded joints in structural rehabilitation: A review,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., vol. 83, pp. 153–167, Jun. 2018.
L. T. Phan and N. J. Carino, “Fire performance of high strength concrete: research needs,” Adv. Technol. Struct. Eng., 2000.
C. Kahanji, F. Ali, A. Nadjai, and N. Alam, “Effect of curing temperature on the behaviour of UHPFRC at elevated temperatures,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 182, pp. 670–681, 2018.
C. C. Santos and J. P. C.Rodrigues, “Calcareous and granite aggregate concretes after fire,” J. Build. Eng., vol. 8, pp. 231–242, 2016.
I. N. Grubeša, B. Marković, A. Gojević, and J. Brdarić, “Effect of hemp fibers on fire resistance of concrete,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 184, pp. 473–484, 2018.
ASTM C190-92, Standard Specification for Portland Cement, ASTM International, www.astm.org. .
D. Hu, Y. Gu, T. Liu, and L. Zhao, “Microcellular foaming of polysulfones in supercritical CO2 and the effect of co-blowing agent,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 140, pp. 21–31, Oct. 2018.
A. Hajimohammadi, T. Ngo, and P. Mendis, “How does aluminium foaming agent impact the geopolymer formation mechanism?,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 80, pp. 277–286, Jul. 2017.
ASTM C67, Testing of Brick and Structural Clay Tile, ASTM International, www.astm.org. .
K. S. D and A. K. Vyas, “Impact of fire on mecanical properties of concrete containing marble waste,” J. King Saud Univ. Sci., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 42–51, 2019.
V. Jocius and G. Skripkiūnas, “The Mechanism of Disintegration of Cement Concrete at High Temperatures,” Constr. Sci., vol. 18, pp. 4–9, 2016.
N. Khurram, K. Khan, M. U. Saleem, M. N. Amin, and U. Akmal, “Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Mortar with NaturallyOccurring Volcanic Ash and Its Blend withElectric Arc Furnace Slag,” Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2018.
L. Li, P. Jia, J. Dong, L. Shi, G. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “Effects of cement dosage and cooling regimes on the compressive strength of concrete after post-fire-curing from 800 °C,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 142, pp. 208–220, 2017.
E. DestaShumuye, J. Zhao, and Z. Wang, “Effect of fire exposure on physico-mechanical and microstructural properties of concrete containing high volume slag cement,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 213, pp. 447–458, 2019.
P. Zhu, X. Xu, H. Liu, S. Liu, C. Chen, and Z. Jia, “Tunnel fire resistance of self-compacting concrete coated with SiO2 aerogel cement paste under 2.5 h HC fire loading,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 239, pp. 1–9, 2019.
M. Ozawa, S. Uchida, T. Kamada, and H. Morimoto, “Study of mechanisms of explosive spalling in high-strength concrete at high temperatures using acoustic emission,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 37, pp. 621–628, 2012.
M. Szelag, “Evaluation of cracking patterns of cement paste containing polypropylene fibers,” Compos. Struct., vol. 220, pp. 402–411, 2019.
S. Zhang, R. Dong, M. Wang, W. Jia, and Z. Lu, “Synthesis mechanisms on waste poplar fiber lightweight biomass bricks,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 246, 2020.