Study of Energetic Materials of Double Base Propellant for Small Caliber Ammunition

  • Khevinadya Ramadhani Runtu Republic Indonesia of Defense University
  • Leni Tria Melati Republic of Indonesia Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Igara Triregina Republic of Indonesia Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Gathut Imam Gunadi Republic of Indonesia Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Prita Nur Wahyu Republic of Indonesia Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Ice Fahmi Republic of Indonesia Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Nanang Hary Soebakgijo Republic of Indonesia Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Mas Ayu Elita Hafizah Republic of Indonesia Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Yayat Ruyat Republic of Indonesia Defense University, Bogor, Indonesia
Keywords: Double Base Propellant, Energetic Materials, Nitrocellulose, Nitroglycerin


Double Base Propellants (DBP) has been frequently utilized in the fields of rocket propellant and gun propellant. DBP has various advantages over conventional propellants, including easy formulation, high energy, and smokelessness. The research conducted in literature studies was applied by referring to the various energetic materials for DBP. The composition of a DBP consists of energetic raw material of Nitrocellulose (NC) and Nitroglycerin (NG). According to data analysis, NC can be manufactured from the raw material Nata de Coco, which has a nitrogen content of more than 12,5% in NC, which is in line with the levels of conventional military and propellant raw materials. Meanwhile, SMX (1,4-dinitrate-2,3-dinitro-2,3bis (nitratomethylene) butane) or GAP (Glycidyl Azide Polymer) on double-base propellants is suggested as potential alternative energy sources that can be utilized to substitute NG. The choice of new energetic material is influenced by the fact that Nata de Coco is abundant in Indonesia, while SMX and GAP in terms of manufacturing and handling are safety. The several parameters to characterize double-base propellants include thermal analysis, microstructure, surface area, burning rate value, and gaseous product. The results of thermal properties by DSC analysis on a DBP based on NC+NG+TiO2-trifluoroacrylate showed a change in exothermic decomposition at a temperature of 199.2oC. Meanwhile, TGA analysis of a DBP based on NC+NG+GAP showed mass decomposition at temperature 199,3oC. Furthermore, it was found that thermoplastic elastomers GAP have a significant effect on increasing the low-temperature mechanical properties of double-base propellants. As a result, the literature studies approach, which includes consideration of alternative energetic raw materials and characterization for double-base propellants, is the recommendation for obtaining superior performance double-base propellants with energetic materials.


Download data is not yet available.


Agrawal., Jai, P. (2010). High Energy Materials-Propellant, Explosives and Pyrotechnics, Weiheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.

Austruy, H. (1993). Double-base Propellants. In Solid Rocket Propulsion Technology (pp. 369-413). Pergamon.

Christodoulatos, C., Su T.L., Koustsospyros A. (2001). Kinetics of the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Nitrocellulose. Water Environ Res. Mar-Apr;73(2): pp.185-191.

Gismatulina, Y.A., Budaeva, V.V. and Sakovich, G.V. (2018). Nitrocellulose Synthesis from Miscanthus Cellulose. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 43(1), pp.96-100.

Jamal, S.H., Roslan, N.J., Shah, N.A.A., Noor, S.A.M., Ong, K.K. and Yunus, W.M.Z.W. (2020). Preparation and Characterization of Nitrocellulose from Bacterial Cellulose for Propellant uses. Materials Today: Proceedings, 29, pp.185-189.

Jori R.N., Jamal, S.H., Ong, K.K., and Wan Y.W.M.Z. (2021). Preliminary Study on the Effect of Sulphuric Acid to Nitric Acid Mixture Composition, Temperature and Time on Nitrocellulose Synthesis based Nata de Coco. In Solid State Phenomena (Vol. 317, pp. 312-319). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.

Martinez-Pastor, J., Franco, P. and Franco-Menchon, J.A. (2019). Optimization of Extrusion Process of Double-Base Propellants from Their Rheological Properties. International Journal of Material Forming, 12(2), pp.307-320.

Martínez-Pastor, J., Franco, P., Moratilla, D. and Lopez-Garcia, P.J. (2018). Optimization of Forming Processes for Gelled Propellant Manufacturing. In Modeling and Simulation in Industrial Engineering (pp. 1-28). Springer, Cham.

Mattar, H., Baz, Z., Saleh, A., Shalaby, A.S., Azzazy, A.E., Salah, H. and Ismail, I. (2020). Nitrocellulose: Structure, Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications. Water, Energy, Food Environ. J, 3, pp.1-15.

Pourmortazavi, S.M., Farhadi, K., Mirzajani, V., Mirzajani, S. and Kohsari, I. (2016). Study on the Catalytic Effect of Diaminoglyoxime on Thermal Behaviors, Non-Isothermal Reaction Kinetics and Burning Rate of Homogeneous Double-Base Propellant. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 125(1), pp.121-128.

Reese, D.A., Groven, L.J. and Son, S.F. (2014). Formulation and Characterization of a New Nitroglycerin‐Free Double Base Propellant. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 39(2), pp.205-210.

Trache, D., Khimeche, K., Mezroua, A. and Benziane, M. (2016). Physicochemical Properties of Microcrystalline Nitrocellulose from Alfa Grass Fibers and its Thermal Stability. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 124(3), pp.1485-1496.

Yolhamid, M.N.A.G., Ibrahim, F., Zarim, M.A.U.A.A., Ibrahim, R., Adnan, S. and Yahya, M.Z.A. (2018). The Processing of Nitrocellulose from Rhizophora, Palm Oil Bunches (EFB) and kenaf fibers as a Propellant Grade. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(4.29), pp.59-65.

Zhang, Y., Meng, X., Wang, J., Wang, L. and Xiao, Z. (2019). Effect of Fluorine-Containing Nano-Sized Multi-Functional Additives on Thermal Decomposition Behavior and Gaseous Products of Double-Base Propellants. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 135(6), pp.3223-3231.

Zhao, B., Zhang, T., Ge, Z. and Luo, Y. (2016). Fabrication and Thermal Decomposition of Glycidyl Azide Polymer Modified Nitrocellulose Double Base Propellants. Science China Chemistry, 59(4), pp.472-477.

Zou, X., Zhang, W., Gu, Y., Fu, X., Zhang, Z., Ge, Z., and Luo, Y. (2020). A Study on the Effect of Four Thermoplastic Elastomers on the Properties of Double-Base Propellants. RSC Advances, 10(70), pp.42883-42889.

How to Cite
K. R. Runtu, “Study of Energetic Materials of Double Base Propellant for Small Caliber Ammunition”, JI, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-7, Jan. 2023.